Adderall (d-amphetamine) is a central nervous system stimulant, comprised of mixed amphetamine salts (75% dextroamphetamine; 25% levoamphetamine). Amphetamines stimulate the brain by increasing the levels of dopamine and norepinephrine, the neurotransmitters involved in hyperactivity and impulse control. Adderall was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1996. It is used for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children ages 6 and older, as well as narcolepsy. Adderall XR (extended release) is only approved for the treatment of ADHD.
By Meghan Vivo
The #MeToo movement has gone viral following sexual harassment and sexual misconduct allegations against a growing list of celebrities. It’s a powerful and needed movement that’s only beginning to shed light on the depth and scale of the problem.
People receiving the top treatment for pain—prescription painkillers—can rapidly transition from pain relief to painkiller addiction. And yet, your doctor may be the unwitting instigator of this misery, if you don’t ask the right questions from the start.
By Karen Williams, MS, LAC
Intensive Outpatient Program Clinical Manager at Promises Scottsdale
Group therapy works because it creates connection and reduces toxic shame through open, honest communication. Many aspects of the group dynamic contribute to the reasons why group therapy works. Here are 10 of them:
By Tiffany Dzioba, PsyD, LMFT, Clinical Program Director, Promises Malibu Vista
Addressing spirituality and spiritual issues in psychotherapy can be an integral part of helping clients heal from trauma and achieve post-traumatic growth. Spiritual concepts such as forgiveness, meaning-making, surrender and connectedness can help clients integrate traumatic events and move forward with new narratives and resources for coping.
A decades-long effort among American healthcare providers to better manage pain for a wider range of patients has led to the overprescribing of addictive opioid painkillers, which has led to a nationwide opioid addiction crisis.
There’s no “cure” for drug addiction because it’s a chronic disease and recovery is a lifelong process. But recent research suggests CRISPR gene editing (i.e. clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) could help scientists hone in on the genes behind substance use disorders. The hope is that these insights might spawn future research that could lower the chances of addictive behaviors in people who are genetically predisposed to substance abuse.
If you’ve ever been asked to show your I.D. when purchasing cough medicine for yourself, you’ve likely taken dextromethorphan. Dextromethorphan, or DXM, is a drug commonly found in over-the-counter cough and cold medicines. It’s also gained a reputation for drug misuse, especially in teens and young adults.
Certain types of hydrocodone, one of the most commonly prescribed opioid painkillers and the most commonly prescribed medication of any kind in the United States, can cause permanent hearing loss in people who abuse the drug.
By Christian Castaneda, LCSW, Program Director, Promises
It’s human nature to feel a connection to holidays. People relate to familiar anniversaries and hold certain dates as significant or sacred. That’s why so many people plan to make healthy changes at the start of a new year.
An estimated 23 million Americans and nearly 30 million people worldwide are addicted to a substance—from alcohol to prescription medications to illicit drugs.
Addiction is the unintended outcome of misusing or overusing an addictive substance. While there is much debate over the role that free will or choice plays in addiction, it can certainly be argued that no one who takes a drink, drug or prescription medication sets out to become an addict. More likely, they take the substance to find a way to feel good (or at least better), relieve pain, forget their problems or numb difficult feelings. If that substance is highly addictive, the substance is more likely to be repeated.
Hydrocodone is currently the most commonly prescribed opioid painkiller in the United States. A semi-synthetic narcotic medication that is sold as a generic or under the brand names Vicodin, Hysingla, Zohydro, Norco and Lorcet, hydrocodone is also one of the most commonly misused or abused opioid painkillers.
The number of senior citizens with drug addiction is on the rise in the United States, and prescription painkillers, such as hydrocodone and other opioids, play a major role in drug problems among the elderly. Opioid painkillers are the fourth most commonly abused substance among senior citizens in the U.S., following close behind alcohol, marijuana and stimulants.
Adults aged 50 and older are among the more than 3 million people in the United States who have opioid or opiate addictions. Overuse or misuse of prescription painkillers such as oxycodone and hydrocodone is so widespread that President Trump has declared the opioid epidemic a public “health emergency.”
The Food and Drug Administration has issued a warning on the “deadly risks” associated with the use of kratom, an herbal supplement touted as a treatment for anxiety and depression and more recently as an alternative to opioid pain pills.