The concept of codependency was initially used to define behaviors and relationships in family members of drug abusers and alcoholics. Similar patterns have been seen in family relationships involving chronically or mentally ill individuals. At one time, debates ignited about whether codependency was a dysfunctional relationship or a personality problem. Eventually, some studies contradicted the stereotypical view of a chemically-dependent spouse having a personality disorder responsible for these codependent behaviors. Instead, it was suggested in many cases, these behaviors were normal reactions to overwhelming stressors of living with an addict. Today, the term has been broadened to encompass codependent members of any dysfunctional family. Subsequent research has also uncovered different patterns in codependency, based on gender and other variables.1,2
Drinking too much alcohol can take a serious toll on your health, with widely documented side effects on the brain, heart, liver, pancreas, immune system, as well an increased risk of oral, esophageal, throat, liver and breast cancer.1 While multiple studies have investigated the long-term effects of alcohol on the gastrointestinal tract (GI), this topic has not been as widely covered in the mainstream media as other alcohol-related health repercussions. The GI tract comprises the esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine (colon).2 These body parts are intrinsically linked and also interact with the pancreas and liver, which can be severely damaged by long-term alcohol use. Starting at the top of the GI tract, here is a summary of the devastating effects alcohol wreaks on the entire GI system.
If you’ve ever experienced a wicked hangover, you’re certainly not alone. No doubt, the first hangover occurred soon after prehistoric humans discovered the delightful nectar of the vine. Indeed, hangovers are so dreadful, humans have been seeking miracle cures going back to ancient Assyria, when those who imbibed excessively were given a mixture of ground birds’ beaks and myrrh to alleviate the after effects. In Medieval times, European doctors recommended raw eel and bitter almonds, which sounds like it would exacerbate the bouts of nausea often accompanying a hangover, tenfold.1 Fast forward to 18th-century England.2
“My first return of sense or recollection was upon waking in a strange, dismal-looking room, my head aching horridly, pains of a violent nature in every limb, and deadly sickness at the stomach. From the latter I was in some degree relieved by a very copious vomiting. Getting out of bed, I looked out of the only window in the room, but saw nothing but the backs of old houses, from which various miserable emblems of poverty were displayed . . . . At that moment I do not believe in the world there existed a more wretched creature than myself. I passed some moments in a state little short of despair . . . .” —William Hickey, 1768
You’ve made the important decision to enter inpatient rehab and understandably have questions and concerns. Addiction has been a long road full of angst, bouts of depression, health problems and a host of personal problems, but it’s familiar. For first-time clients, rehab represents uncharted territory, so it’s natural to feel some trepidation, not to mention all of the everyday matters you must attend to if you are employed and/or a parent. You’ve already toured the facility and talked to others who have been in rehab, but you still have questions. Below are practical tips including steps to take ahead of time (e.g. employment, childcare and financial issues) and what to bring to rehab.
By Jody Trager, PhD, Program Director at Promises Malibu Vista
One of the greatest gifts of this world is nature. But with so much focus on working indoors and living in cities, there is a disconnection from this great source of beauty and grounding.
Humans were meant to dwell in natural environments and separations from that can add to mental health issues.
A few minutes in nature can help turn a bad day around. It can clear the head, calm nerves, lower blood pressure and help with concentration. It can also reduce depression, anxiety and stress, and lift your mood.
Americans have made headlines for having the highest number of drug overdose deaths in U.S. history in a single year. In 2016, it is estimated that more than 60,000 people in the U.S. died from drugs — a 19% increase over the country’s 2015 drug-related deaths. In fact, drug overdoses are now the leading cause of death among Americans under 50 — ahead of car crashes, gun deaths and HIV/AIDS.
The death rate from drugs is expected to climb still higher in 2017, due mainly to the opioid drug epidemic that is sweeping the country. An added problem is that more powerful drugs like fentanyl and its analogs (i.e., carfentanil), are being used by drug dealers to create cheaper opioids or to extend supplies of cocaine and heroin — sneaky practices that drive up drug trafficking profits, but raise the risk of overdose for desperate buyers. Emergency medical responders report that people taking drugs laced with these stronger substances are harder to save — even multiple doses of the anti-overdose medication naloxone/Narcan doesn’t always revive them.
A drunk driver is no longer the biggest danger on the road. A drugged driver is even more likely to drive erratically and cause an accident. Case in point: the 2017 Memorial Day drugged driving incident involving golf legend Tiger Woods, who banged up his car and then fell asleep at the wheel before he managed to pull off the road. Later failing the sobriety field test, Woods claimed his intoxication was not due to drinking, but a result of “an unexpected reaction to prescribed medications.”
According to traffic statistics, drugged driving leads to more fatal crashes than drunk driving.
When you suffer a devastating personal loss it will change your life forever. In most instances you will find the strength to move on despite the heartbreak, but not before undergoing an extended period of grief.
Intense grief can be triggered by the death of a loved one, but also by divorce, job loss, serious illness or disability, significant financial setbacks, fractured friendships, the loss of your home or becoming a victim of violent crime. Loss and grief are universal human experiences, and all of us will encounter them at one time or another.
Our language has many idiomatic expressions that describe a person with anger management issues, perhaps because impulsive anger is something we frequently witness or experience.
Loses his cool. Has a quick temper. Has a short fuse. Blows his top. Busts a gasket. Has a temper tantrum. Has a cow. Foams at the mouth. Sees red. Goes ballistic. Goes through the roof. Bristles with rage. Flames with anger. Bites your head off.
Most of us know someone volatile who seems to fly off the handle at the drop of a hat.
“I can’t sleep. I might have to take a couple of Ambien to go to sleep,” actor Heath Ledger told his sister on the phone the night before he died. She knew he had received prescriptions for co-occurring anxiety, depression and insomnia, and warned him not to mix his medications — she understood the dangers.
Ledger’s overlapping conditions were not unusual. It is common for someone who suffers from anxiety to suffer from depression — more than 50% of people diagnosed with depression also have anxiety. Insomnia occurs in 50% to 90% of people with these mental health conditions, so it is not unusual for a person to receive coinciding prescriptions for insomnia, anxiety and depression.
Like many people, Ledger took multiple prescription medications together. Ledger told his sister not to worry, but 24 hours later, the talented performer and aspiring film director was gone at the age of 28. The cause of death? Accidental “acute intoxication” from the combined effects of six prescription medications, including sleep medications, anti-anxiety medications and opioid painkillers.
The medical examiner reported that Ledger’s death resulted from the misuse or “abuse of prescription medications,” but it was their toxic combination that killed him.
Millions of people abuse drugs, and millions end up in the emergency room because of the harmful effects these substances have on the human body. Inevitably, the use of ERs for drug treatment drives up the nation’s overall medical costs. With the help of data collected by federal researchers, we can roughly estimate how much money goes to drug-related ER visits.
It has often been said that if you want to know more about a particular topic, it’s best to go directly to the source, or the horse’s mouth — as it were.
But with social anxiety disorder, things aren’t so easy. Ask me about it and the chances are I won’t be able to tell you much of anything. Not because I don’t know — I do, I’ve suffered from it my whole life.
No, the problem is that those of us who have social anxiety disorder don’t like to answer personal questions. Or many other types of questions, for that matter. We see no upside but plenty of downside in doing so.
People from all walks of life suffer from anxiety disorders. Now a new study sheds light on who is most affected by this oftentimes debilitating condition. The research, published in the journal Brain and Behavior, suggests that women are almost twice as likely to experience anxiety as men. Led by Olivia Remes, PhD candidate at the University of Cambridge, this study also found that people from Western Europe and North America are more likely to suffer from anxiety than people from other cultures.
“Anxiety is debilitating, disabling, and can increase the risk for suicide,” Remes said. “It can cause significant distress in many areas of someone’s life … [it] can make people less productive at work and can also increase the risk for other serious conditions such as depression and alcohol abuse.”
It is important, she notes, that people who think they might be suffering from the symptoms of anxiety — restlessness, muscle tension, an inability to focus, insomnia, constant worry and fear, among others — seek help. If left untreated, anxiety can become quite severe and lead to other mental health problems, which makes treatment of any of the disorders more difficult.
It’s time to hit the pause button on your regularly scheduled life and do some self-reflection. Read the following statements and mark them true or false, based on whether they apply to you.
- I often find myself putting other people’s needs ahead of my own.
- I have trouble saying no to people because I don’t want to disappoint them or have them disapprove of me.
- Making other people happy, having them rely on me, earning their appreciation or praise, is incredibly fulfilling to me.
- I have a tendency to go out of my way to please people, try to get them to like me, or give them what I think they need.
- I frequently go along with what other people want or defer to their preferences to keep the peace or make them happy.
If you marked any of these statements true, you’re personally familiar with the people-pleasing habit. There’s nothing wrong with wanting to make other people happy or to have a positive effect on them. But if you find yourself going to great lengths to please other people and sacrificing or shortchanging your own needs consistently to do so, the need to please has become a problem.
After living with depression or anxiety for an extended period of time, it’s hard to remember what it feels like to be happy and full of energy.
What in your life is guaranteed to make you happy? If you’re struggling right now with your mental health, that is a tough question to answer. When you are having a good day, try this exercise: write an encouraging letter to yourself. Make note of the things that make everyday life a joy. Refer back to the letter when you need a pick me up, or bookmark this webpage for easy reference.